One of the most shocking moments in the work occurs at the beginning of the development when the full orchestra plays a violent sequence of unison notes punctuated by halting silences, ranging through all of the notes of the chromatic scale except, interestingly enough, the tonic G. The harmony goes even further afield in the development, with excursions into the remote key of C-sharp minor, and a fugato in F minor based on the opening motive. As in the first movement, the second theme retains the minor mode in the recapitulation.
Symphony No. 41 “Jupiter”, K. 551
The C major Symphony had been known, particularly in German-speaking countries, as the Symphonie mit der Schlussfuge symphony with the fugal finale. The second theme is also built of contrasting elements: a gently rising chromatic line with a lively dotted figure completing the phrase. A brief silence sets up a surprising subito forte outburst in C minor from the full orchestra. This quickly reverts to major and sets up yet another theme in the dominant key. This tune is the first point of departure in the development, where its closing bars are turned into a canonic duel between the upper and lower strings.
The opening theme is reintroduced in F Major, but the true recapitulation does not occur until after yet more modulations have been explored.
The Andante cantabile is in sonata form, but with a concise development. The broad theme is played by muted violins, but abrupt forte chords and chromatically inflected thirty-second note runs, which become quite intense in the recapitulation, undermine the serene mood. The high-spirited Menuetto is traditional in its phrase structure, but the chromaticism of its melodies and the use of canonic techniques link it to the rest of the symphony.
The Trio begins with a cadence, which is like starting a joke with a punch line. In the Molto allegro finale, Mozart famously combines sonata form with elements of the fugue. The opening four-note motive—do, re, fa, mi—dates back to Gregorian chant and was well-known to eighteenth-century composers; Mozart himself had used it in several earlier works, including his first symphony K. These four whole notes form the first half of a phrase which is completed by four bars of rhythmically lively flourishes. Next comes a transitional theme comprised of fanfares and brilliant scales, followed by a four-part canonic mini-development of the original four-note motive.
The second theme begins quietly in the violins but soon expands to a vigorous canonic episode engaging the full orchestra. The development section deals mainly with the first theme group, juxtaposing the four-note and fanfare motives. A quiet version of the fanfare gracefully ushers in the recapitulation.
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In this recording, the development repeat is taken, which prolongs the suspense before reaching this point. What follows is not a strict fugue, but a fugato in five-part invertible counterpoint. All of these organically related motives have been heard previously, and treated to various types of development, but are now presented in every imaginable juxtaposition and stratification. One important motive not included in the fugato is the merry second half of the opening theme, but just at the point where the contrapuntal interplay threatens to overwhelm, it reappears, uniting the various voices and sweeping them toward the final cadences, with theatrical flourishes from the trumpets and timpani bringing all to a triumphant conclusion.
Among all composers, Mozart is exceptional for the neatness and clarity of his manuscripts, which rarely contain mistakes or corrections. In the recapitulation, if bars are played exactly as written, the bassoons create dissonances reminiscent of Debussy and perhaps not intended. Weil proposes that if these notes, which are in bass clef, are instead read as if in treble clef but down an octave the resulting notes will instead match the harmony in exactly the same way that they do in an analogous passage in the exposition bars In that passage, the bassoon parts basically double the brass instruments.
This recording represents the first aural argument for this discovery.
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London: Macmillan Publishing, Founded in by Kenneth [ Bruno Weil is world renowned as one of the leading conductors of Viennese Classicism. He has conducted leading symphony orchestras, among them the Berlin Philharmonic, Vienna Philharmonic, Dresden [ Sherman has pointed out other similarities between the two almost perfectly contemporaneous works. The four-note motif is also the main theme of the contrapuntal finale of Michael's elder brother Joseph's Symphony No.
According to Franz Mozart , Wolfgang's younger son, the symphony was given the name Jupiter by Johann Peter Salomon ,   who had settled in London in around The name has also been attributed to Johann Baptist Cramer , an English music publisher.
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The name does not appear to have entered general circulation until nearly twenty years after Ditters's death in Some sources suggest ,  but public notices using the name have emerged going back to mid Salomon died in , so it may have circulated within informed musical circles for a considerable time before it became public.
As summarized below, the Symphony garnered approbation from critics, theorists, composers and biographers and came to be viewed as a canonized masterwork, known for its fugue and its overall structure which exuded clarity. The first known recording of the Jupiter Symphony is from , at the dawn of the recording era, making it one of the very first symphonies to be recorded using the earliest recording technology. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
London Symphony Orchestra conducted in by Albert Coates The Morning Post of Tuesday, June 03, carries an advertisement for printed music that includes: "The celebrated movement from Mozart's sympathy [sic], called "Jupiter", arranged as a Duet, by J. Wilkins, 4s. So the fact that the nickname of Mozart's symphony is an allusion to Ditters's symphony is generally overlooked. The Guardian. Retrieved September 29, Mozart's last symphony, No 41, the 'Jupiter', was in third place [ Classic FM UK.
August 30, Mozart, Haydn and Early Beethoven — Peter, The Symphonic Repertoire Volume 2.
Symphonies: 39, 40, 41 – bassoon concerto
In: Mozart and His Music , p. Volume 43, p. The Kennedy Center. Archived from the original on Retrieved 8 May Mozart: The 'Jupiter' Symphony.
Mozart: Symphonies Nos. 40 & 41
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