They were aimed at what he himself called 'the false democracy' They attacked an apparently liberal 'pseudo-democracy' which 'was not economic and social' According to historian of anarchism George Woodcock , some positions Proudhon took "sorted oddly with his avowed anarchism". Woodcock cited for example Proudhon's proposition that each citizen perform one or two years militia service. In addition to being considered a founding father of anarchism some have tried to link him to the extreme right.
He was first used as a reference in the Cercle Proudhon , a right-wing association formed in by Georges Valois and Edouard Berth. Both had been brought together by the syndicalist Georges Sorel. But they would tend toward a synthesis of socialism and nationalism , mixing Proudhon's mutualism with Charles Maurras ' integralist nationalism. In , Georges Valois founded the Faisceau , the first fascist league, which took its name from Mussolini 's fasci.
Historian of fascism, in particular of French fascists , Zeev Sternhell , has noted this use of Proudhon by the far right. Steven Vincent, however, states that "to argue that Proudhon was a proto-fascist suggests that one has never looked seriously at Proudhon's writings. Salwyn Schapiro argued in that Proudhon was a racist, "a glorifier of war for its own sake" and his "advocacy of personal dictatorship and his laudation of militarism can hardly be equalled in the reactionary writings of his or of our day.
Other scholars have rejected Schapiro's claims.
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Robert Graham states that while Proudhon was personally racist, "anti-semitism formed no part of Proudhon's revolutionary programme. Albert Meltzer has said that though Proudhon used the term "anarchist", he was not one, and that he never engaged in "anarchist activity or struggle" but rather in "parliamentary activity".
In he considered publishing an article against the Jewish race , which he said he "hated". The proposed article would have "called for the expulsion of the Jews from France The Jew is the enemy of the human race. This race must be sent back to Asia, or exterminated. Heine , A. Weil, and others are simply secret spies. His diary entry dated 26 December states: Jews. Write an article against this race that poisons everything by sticking its nose into everything without ever mixing with any other people.
Demand its expulsion from France with the exception of those individuals married to French women. Abolish synagogues and not admit them to any employment. Finally, pursue the abolition of this religion. It's not without cause that the Christians called them deicide. The Jew is the enemy of humankind. They must be sent back to Asia or be exterminated. By steel or by fire or by expulsion the Jew must disappear. Nevertheless, while racism was not overtly part of his political philosophy, Proudhon did express sexist beliefs.
And he recommended that men use this greater strength to keep women in their place. Immanuel Ness Ed. Hegel , Charles Fourier. Schools of thought. Theory Practice. By region. Related topics.
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Pour plus d'informations, rendez-vous sur www. Our stock data is updated overnight, and availability may change throughout the day for in-demand items. In Proudhon said: "All my economic ideas as developed over twenty-five years can be summed up in the words: agricultural-industrial federation. All my political ideas boil down to a similar formula: political federation or decentralization.
Proudhon opposed the charging of interest and rent, but did not seek to abolish them by law: "I protest that when I criticized I think that all these manifestations of human activity should remain free and voluntary for all: I ask for them no modifications, restrictions or suppressions, other than those which result naturally and of necessity from the universalization of the principle of reciprocity which I propose.
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- Proudhon’s Anti-Semitism in context.
Proudhon was a revolutionary, but his revolution did not mean violent upheaval or civil war, but rather the transformation of society. This transformation was essentially moral in nature and demanded the highest ethics from those who sought change. It was monetary reform, combined with organising a credit bank and workers associations, that Proudhon proposed to use as a lever to bring about the organization of society along new lines.
He made no public criticisms of Marx or Marxism, because in his lifetime Marx was a relatively minor thinker; it was only after Proudhon's death that Marxism became a large movement. He did, however, criticize authoritarian socialists of his period. Blanc: you desire neither Catholicism nor monarchy nor nobility, but you must have a God, a religion, a dictatorship, a censorship, a hierarchy, distinctions, and ranks.
For my part, I deny your God, your authority, your sovereignty, your judicial State, and all your representative mystifications. In one of his first works, The Holy Family , Marx said, "Not only does Proudhon write in the interest of the proletarians , he is himself a proletarian, an ouvrier.
His work is a scientific manifesto of the French proletariat. In their letters Proudhon expressed disagreement with Marx's views on revolution: "I believe we have no need of it in order to succeed; and that consequently we should not put forward revolutionary action as a means of social reform, because that pretended means would simply be an appeal to force, to arbitrariness, in brief, a contradiction" .
Proudhon opposed militarism, dictatorship, and war, arguing that the " end of militarism is the mission of the nineteenth century, under pain of indefinite decadence"  and that the "workers alone are capable of putting an end to war by creating economic equilibrium.
This presupposes a radical revolution in ideas and morals. Hoffman notes that War and Peace "ends by condemning war without reservation" and its "conclusion [is] that war is obsolete. If injustice was the cause of war, it followed that conflict could not be eliminated until society was reorganised along egalitarian lines. Proudhon had wanted to prove that the reign of political economy would be the reign of peace, finding it difficult to believe that people really thought he was defending militarism.
Proudhon argued that under mutualism "[t]here will no longer be nationality, no longer fatherland, in the political sense of the words: they will mean only places of birth. Man, of whatever race or colour he may be, is an inhabitant of the universe; citizenship is everywhere an acquired right. Proudhon also rejected dictatorship, stating in the s that "what I will always be. His invectives against democracy were not those of a counter-revolutionary.